Letters from the Front: A Soldier’s Experiences in the First World War


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Penny Blackburn, an archive volunteer, writes:

This collection of letters, acquired by the Library in 2014, chronicles a soldier’s life on the Western Front during the First World War.

Arthur Powell enlisted with the Manchester Pals in October 1914, at age of eighteen. For most of the war he served with the 19th King’s Liverpool Regiment. After a period of time in Salonika, Greece, where he was involved with the British withdrawal of troops, he finally reached home in May 1919. By the time of demobilisation he had risen to the rank of Corporal and the pride he had in his new title is clearly evident in the way he addressed his letters.

Arthur wrote home to his parents regularly, every three or four days, except when he was on the march, with his unit, or during periods of ‘fatigue’ duty when he was taken for Lewis Gun training and trench building. Otherwise the communication between son and home was frequent and unbroken. The letters demonstrate an affectionate, loving bond between son and parents.

This was the invisible thread between battlefield and home; love and hope. This came in the form of both news, and for our correspondent, essential food parcels (one of Arthur’s primary concerns!)  Letters were an essential communication which kept alive the hope, for the loved ones anxiously waiting for news back home, and those separated by the call of duty and war. For soldiers fighting in the First World War letters and parcels made their situation almost bearable and something to which they could look forward to receiving; they were a taste and reminder of home.

First World War Letters of Arthur Powell

First World War Letters of Arthur Powell

First World War Letters of Arthur Powell


First World War Letters of Arthur Powell

Letter dated 20 February 1917, France, written in indelible pencil. Powell mentions that he has been wading thigh-high in mud, and jokingly titles himself “SLOPPY MUD ESQ”.

This work has mirrored, most fortunately, work that I have been doing in the Archives and Cultural Collections Centre in Bury Central Library. There as a volunteer also, we have been collecting and saving digitized images and articles from the local newspapers of that time, building up to the Centenary of the end of WW1. In conjunction with the support of and involvement of the Lancashire Fusiliers Museum opposite the library archives, we’ve held open days and events which have been both rewarding and illuminating for ourselves and the public. I’m explaining this because I feel the letters which I’m currently transcribing here, have enriched and enlightened my understanding of this most terrible time.

Arthur’s letters begin at the time of his enlistment in February 1916, where he is despatched to a training camp in Sussex, until his demobilisation from the army in Salonika where he was stationed after the war.  Arthur’s handwriting was neat and assured; he wrote on all sizes and forms of paper, lined and unlined, from tiny A6 sized pieces, to larger A4 pieces folded, with heavy margins drawn down the middle. Arthur took from whatever was to hand, from the backs of restaurant menus to letter headed paper of the YMCA and the stationary of the Church Army.

First World War Letters of Arthur Powell

Postcard photograph entitled “European War Pictures 313, Wounded Soldiers in Hospital – Brighton”.

What has struck me most, in these deeply personal accounts of Arthur’s experiences, is the affectionate, and unswerving love and devotion shared by him and his parents. Arthur’s relationship with his parents is a healthy and happy one. He holds them in high esteem, as they do him. It is remarkable indeed, even in the grimmest of fighting conditions, when Arthur has been wading thigh high in mud, and ‘chums’ have fallen by his side as he’s ‘gone over the top’, that he is still able to find the courage and cheery disposition to console and reassure his parents.

Arthur’s accounts of the fighting conditions are surprisingly graphic, and he spares no unpleasant detail as to the reality of his situation. From assisting the chaplain in identifying the bodies, to burying the dead, left out on the open ground; all this done while under continual fire from the enemy, ‘As regards shelling & machine gun fire it has been the worst experience I have had by far’. Arthur pulls no punches and says it as it is, with honesty and realism.

In one letter home to his parents, Arthur is too exhausted to write, but he feels fortunate to be ‘still alive’. He has only received one small skin wound to his face, below his eye, while one unfortunate chum had a large piece of shrapnel embedded in his thigh, and sadly, more deeply affecting for Arthur, his chum ‘Norman’ was killed by a bullet through his stomach. We learn that as the soldiers ‘push over the top’, they are instructed not to go back and help a fallen comrade, they are told to ‘push on’. By the time Arthur returns to his friend it is too late, ‘he was dead as door nail’.  He now has the unpleasant task of ‘writing to his people back home’.

We can be assured though that this will have been done with sensitivity and kindness, as in his letters Arthur demonstrates thoughtfulness and artistic imagination. In one letter he clearly describes a dawn on a glorious Sunday morning. Arthur can hear church bells ringing in the distance, it reminds him of home and he becomes reflective; ‘in fact I began to wonder if Father had gone down stairs to light the fire & brought Mother tea up. It is a beautiful day & I can just imagine Alex Park this afternoon with the band playing and all my old chums about me’.

Arthur upholds a strong tenacity to life; he believes he will return home in ‘A1 condition and very much smiling’.

What does shine through all the mud, blood, exhaustion and hunger, is gratitude, and a deep appreciation of his parents. Their loving devotion to him and diligent upbringing has helped shaped the character he has now become; ‘I think it reflects great credit on your dear selves, for my early rearing, that I should land in the strain of this terrible existence when so many men are breaking down’. Arthur is able to draw on their love for him, and seek comfort and reassurance, and for this he is eternally grateful and able; ‘to enjoy the very good health that I do today’.

Arthur’s optimism is remarkable, we might think that his words are merely to comfort his parents and on occasion, to disguise his true anxieties, but his letters are humbling and inspiring to read. He acknowledges the responsibility his generation faces, and admonishes his parents for even considering the idea that his Father should swap places with him, ‘It has fallen to the lot of our generation to see this war through & we must do it’ he concludes.

These letters go some way to reflect the strength of character of what must have been a remarkable young man. They are also a testimony not only to Arthur’s involvement in the war, but also to those many thousands of other men and women who so bravely fought and paid the ultimate price. Arthur concludes that the only souvenir he wishes to bring home will be; ‘myself, “yours truly Esq” & that will do’.

First World War Letters of Arthur Powell

Letter dated 5 August 1917, France, written on Church Army headed paper. The Church Army brought much needed support to the soldiers fighting on the front line.


University Academics and the First World War


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Dr James Peters writes:

The First World War not only dislocated the everyday work of the University’s academics, but also undermined some of their cherished beliefs about transnational scholarship. Long-established academic networks between Britain and Germany soon broke down.

At Manchester, few academics were either publicly jingoistic or pacifist; most seem to have agreed with the official policy on the War, and encouraged  students and colleagues to enlist. Some, especially those with German connections, experienced public hostility because of their previous links with belligerent states. One of the most eminent was the physicist Arthur Schuster.

Schuster (1851-1934), who held chairs in physics from 1881 to 1907,  had built up an international reputation for Manchester’s physics department.  He had been born in Germany, but moved to Manchester in the late 1860s, and became a naturalised citizen in 1875. He lived at Kent House, Victoria Park (now part of St Anselm Hall), before moving to Twyford, Berkshire  after his retirement.


Arthur Schuster in his study, c.1905.

Schuster was a passionate believer in international academic co-operation, particularly between national scientific academies, in support of free enquiry and scholarly communication. Like many other British academics, Schuster was a great admirer of the German university system and he helped organise British-German student exchanges in the years before 1914.

This made him a source of suspicion for some once War had broken out. Schuster had to remove radio equipment from his house after being accused of spying, and one of his brothers was forced to issue a public statement declaring the family’s loyalty to Britain.

In early 1914 Schuster had been appointed president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science’s meeting at Manchester in September 1915.  This was a great personal honour, but unfortunately, Schuster’s  German background was to become an issue.

Anti-German feeling in Manchester had been relatively muted in the early months of the War, but riots had occurred in May 1915, with German shops and homes being attacked. The triggers for these outbursts appear to have been the sinking of the Lusitania and the use of poison gas at the second battle of Ypres.

The British Association meeting became embroiled in these conflicts as this flier indicates.

Schuster (1)

Flyer protesting Arthur Schuster’s presidency of the British Association. Henry Roscoe Papers (additional), ROS/5.

The leaflet was discovered during the cataloguing of the papers of Henry Roscoe, another eminent University academic, who was using his good offices to support Schuster’s presidency.

In the event, the Meeting, which was held at the University, passed off without incident. Schuster’s presidential address, “The common aims of science and humanity”,  was a passionate assertion of the benefits of free scientific inquiry. Carefully avoiding controversy, Schuster hoped that scientists’ support for the War effort would not be self-defeating: “…only through victory shall we achieve a peace in which once more science can hold up her head, proud of her strength to preserve the intellectual freedom which is worth more than material prosperity, (and) to defeat the spirit of evil that destroys the sense of brotherhood among nations”. Poignantly, he learnt on the same day that his son had been wounded at Gallipoli.

Schuster’s experience was by no means uncommon. Academics who were German nationals and of military age faced internment, while others lost their jobs or faced ostracism from colleagues. By comparison, Arvid Johannson, the University’s professor of German and a Baltic German by background, was something of an exception, when he was appointed dean of the faculty of arts in 1916, apparently without controversy.



Leverhulme Early Career Fellowships


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The John Rylands Research Institute is pleased to announce that it intends to sponsor Leverhulme Early Career Fellowships beginning in 2016. This will be a two-stage process. Potential applicants are invited to submit preliminary applications by Monday 11 January 2016. An internal panel will then decide which applications to put forward to the Leverhulme (by 10 March 2016).

Projects must demonstrate a strong connection to the University of Manchester Library’s Special Collections. Interested candidates should contact the John Rylands Research Institute Administrator, Anna Higson, as soon as possible. The Institute’s Director, Professor Peter E. Pormann, and grant writer, Chloe Jeffries, as well as the curatorial staff of the Library may assist the candidate in formulating a viable research proposal that is based on a detailed study of items in the Special Collections.

For further information please visit http://www.jrri.manchester.ac.uk/opportunities/leverhulme-early-career-fellowships/.



Library wins grant to catalogue C.P. Scott’s Editorial Correspondence in the Guardian Archive


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We are delighted to announce that the Library has been awarded £40,000 by the National Cataloguing Grants Programme for Archives to undertake a major new project, ‘What the Papers Say: The Editorial Correspondence of C.P. Scott in the Guardian Archive’.

The Guardian Archive is one of the largest and most significant collections held by the Library, and at its heart is the correspondence of Charles Prestwich Scott (1846-1932), who edited the newspaper from 1872 to 1929. Probably the most important figure in the history of the Guardian, Scott was responsible for transforming it from a provincial journal into a newspaper of national and international standing.

Politically, he pursued a consistently left-of-centre editorial stance during his 57 years in office, even in the face of public hostility – championing Irish Home Rule, condeming the excesses of imperialism, and criticising British policy in South Africa before and during the Boer War. He was an influential figure in Liberal circles – not just through his editorship of a Liberal newspaper; he was also president of Manchester Liberal Federation and for 11 years served as a Liberal MP.

C.P. Scott. Image reproduced courtesy of Guardian News and Media Ltd.

C.P. Scott. Image reproduced courtesy of Guardian News and Media Ltd.

As regular readers of this blog will know, we have recently been engaged in various initiatives to improve our documentation of the Guardian Archive, including a current project funded by the Business Archives Council to enhance the records relating to staff and contributors to the newspaper.

This new grant from the National Cataloguing Grants Programme will enable us to undertake a 12-month project focusing on the 13,000 letters which make up Scott’s Editorial Correspondence. There are letters from 1,300 individuals, including leading statesmen and politicians such as Herbert Asquith, David Lloyd George, Winston Churchill and Ramsay MacDonald. Scott’s interest in issues such as women’s suffrage, Irish nationalism and the establishment of a Jewish homeland is also illuminated in correspondence with figures like suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst, Irish nationalist Sir Roger Casement, and Zionist Chaim Weizmann.

Currently Scott’s editorial correspondence is very poorly documented, and our project to produce a detailed catalogue of these letters will really open up the archive both for researchers and for a wealth of other uses.

We hope to launch the project in March 2016 with the appointment of a project archivist and a team of volunteers. There will be regular blog posts, and we’ll be running several public events during the course of the project, so watch this space for updates!

The NCGP is generously supported by The Pilgrim Trust, The Foyle Foundation, The Wolfson Foundation, The Monument Trust, The Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation, The Mercers Company Charitable Foundation, The Goldsmiths Company, The J Paul Getty Jnr Charitable Trust and The Andrew W Mellon Foundation.

Faith after the Pharaohs: Christianity and the Rylands Gospel of Mary


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Source: Faith after the Pharaohs: Christianity and the Rylands Gospel of Mary

Mrs Gaskell Returns!


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This month has seen the return of the portrait bust of Elizabeth Gaskell by the artist William Hamo Thornycroft (1850-1925) to the Rylands Library from her sojourn at the Gaskell House. She has been installed on the landing outside the Elsevier Reading Room and will be on public display at the library for the first time.

Portrait Bust of Elizabeth Gaskell by Hamo Thornycroft. Reference VFA.1

Portrait Bust of Elizabeth Gaskell by Hamo Thornycroft. Reference VFA.1

The bust is actually a copy of an earlier sculpture by Scottish artist David Dunbar (1792-1866) and was produced prior to Elizabeth Gaskell’s marriage to Rev.William Gaskell in August 1832.

At the time of Thornycroft’s commission in the 1890s he was recognised as one of Britain’s leading sculptors.  He was known as a pioneer of the New Sculpture Movement alongside Albert Gilberts (1854-1934) and George Frampton (1869-1928).  In 1888 he was elected to full membership of the Royal Academy and was knighted in 1917.  In addition to this sculpture the Library holds an important cache of Thornycroft’s letters amongst the papers of M.H. Spielmann (1858-1948).

The bust of Mrs Gaskell is seen looking into the Elsevier Reading Room, where she will hopefully provide a link between the collections that the library holds and the reading room where access to these incredible collections can be gained.  The Library is home to a large collection of Mrs Gaskell’s works, including autographed manuscripts of the novel Wives and Daughters and her Life of Charlotte Brönte, as well an extensive collection of correspondence and a selection of her personal artefacts.

For details of how to use the Reading Room please use the link.


Undiscovered collections: Charles Brian Cox, educationist, scholar and poet (1928-2008)

Charles Brian Cox (1928-2008) was a gifted teacher, a superb editor, a skilled administrator and a considerable poet.[i] He co-founded and edited of the literary journal ‘Critical Quarterly’ whose Black Papers sparked debates on education. Known as CB Cox in his roles as professor, editor and activist, as Brian Cox in his post-academic and creative career, and as a former Professor of English at the University of Manchester, a collection of his papers and select books were donated to the University of Manchester library to complement our existing archive holdings.


By permission of the estate of Charles Brian Cox

The recently catalogued printed book collection is in two parts. The first, reflecting his interest in poetry from all over the world, contains a mixture of 20th and 21st century monographs and periodicals from luminaries such as Alfred Tennyson, Andrew Motion, Ted Hughes, Alan Ginsberg, Seamus Heaney, John Betjeman, Bertolt Brecht, Dylan Thomas, W.H. Auden, William Blake and Rupert Brooke, as well as books printed by small, private presses such as Aralia Press, Greville Press, The Keepsake Press and The Mandeville Press.

Permission granted by Michael Peich/Aralia Press, West Chester, PA.

The second part demonstrates his interest in education. He was committed to the reforming of English teaching and championed structured teaching alongside the teaching and encouragement of pupils’ creative writing. He rose to national prominence through the Black Papers, first published in 1969, which initiated a major debate in education which still rages today, and in the Cox Report of 1989. Fight for Education, the first of the Black Papers, declared, “an attack on the excesses of progressive education and the introduction by the Labour Party of a system of 11-18 comprehensives to replace the grammar school” – ten years later the Black Paper proposals were at the root of mainstream Labour and Tory policy.[ii] It was said that in another life he might have been a vice-chancellor or perhaps a junior minister for education: instead his commitment to the teaching of English meant that much of his working life was devoted to raising the standard of debate about education in general and the teaching of English in particular.[iii]


Judy Simons, Emeritus Professor

The collection also contains material published close to his death, showing that age did not diminish his enthusiasm for poetry or life in general. He published the final two of his four volumes of poetry: Emeritus (2001) and My Eightieth Year to Heaven (2007), and upon retiring from the University of Manchester, chaired the Arvon Foundation (1994-97), the North West Arts Board (1994-2000), including two years as a member of the Arts Council (1996-98).[iv]

Charles Brian Cox is survived by his wife Jean (née Willmer), whom he married in 1954, and one son and two daughters.


By permission of the estate of Charles Brian Cox

[i] MacCabe, Colin (2008). Professor Brian Cox: ‘English scholar, poet and editor of ‘Critical Quarterly’ whose Black Papers sparked debate on education. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/professor-brian-cox-english-scholar-poet-and-editor-of-critical-quarterly-whose-black-papers-sparked-debate-on-education-817250.html, (Accessed: 6 July 2015).

[ii] Schmidt, Michael. (2008). Brian Cox. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/apr/28/culture.obituaries, (Accessed: 18 November 2015).

[iii] MacCabe, Colin (2008). Professor Brian Cox: ‘English scholar, poet and editor of ‘Critical Quarterly’ whose Black Papers sparked debate on education. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/professor-brian-cox-english-scholar-poet-and-editor-of-critical-quarterly-whose-black-papers-sparked-debate-on-education-817250.html, (Accessed: 6 July 2015).

[iv] Schmidt, Michael. (2008). Brian Cox. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/apr/28/culture.obituaries, (Accessed: 6 July 2015).

John Rylands Research Institute Conference 2016: ‘The Other Within’ – The Hebrew and Jewish Collections of The John Rylands Library


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Call for Papers: ‘The Other Within’ – The Hebrew and Jewish Collections of The John Rylands Library

Monday 27-Wednesday 29 June 2016 at The John Rylands Library, 150 Deansgate, Manchester, M3 3EH.

The John Rylands Research Institute invites paper proposals for its upcoming 2016 conference on the Hebrew and Jewish collections of The John Rylands Library.

The John Rylands Library preserves one of the world’s valuable collections of Hebrew and Jewish manuscripts, archives and printed books. The holdings span Septuagint fragments to the papers of Moses Gaster and Samuel Alexander. The Rylands Genizah and rich collections of medieval manuscript codices and early printed books are among the strengths of the collection, making The John Rylands Library an important centre for the study of Judaism from the ancient world to the twentieth century.

The aim of this conference is to convene scholars, curators and students researching areas represented in the Library’s Hebrew and Jewish collections, including (but not limited to): the Cairo Genizah; medieval Hebrew manuscript codices; early printed Hebrew books; Samaritan manuscripts; and, the collections of Moses Gaster. It will take place as part of a programme of activities at the John Rylands Research Institute that aim to facilitate the study of the Library’s Hebrew and Jewish holdings. This includes the 2015-2018 externally-funded project to catalogue the Hebrew manuscripts and two ongoing projects on the Gaster collections.

Studies of The John Rylands’ collections, of related Hebraica and Judaica libraries, and of resources and methods that facilitate such research will be particularly welcome. The expectation is that the conference will result in an edited collection of essays.

Paper proposals are due by 17:00 GMT on 29 January 2016. Full details of how to submit a proposal can be found online at: http://www.jrri.manchester.ac.uk/conference-2016/.

This event is supported by the European Association of Jewish Studies’ Conference Grant Programme in European Jewish Studies.

Cleansing the Home of Evil Spirits: Sweeping Magic in the Concordantiae Caritatis (Latin MS 69)


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Stephen Gordon writes:

‘The style of these drawings is beneath contempt’: these are the words of the famed medievalist and cataloguer M. R. James, whose strong opinions of the images found in Latin MS 69 have coloured recent perceptions of one of more curious items from the Rylands collection. In some respects James has a point. Not only are the illustrations sketchy and pen-drawn, but the text itself is written in a rough cursive hand that is difficult to decipher. However, despite its unprepossessing appearance, Latin MS 69 is certainly not without merit. The image of the sweeping woman on fol. 34r (fig. 1) provides a keen insight into the beliefs and fears of a populace for whom attack by evil spirts was an everyday, tangible threat.

Latin MS 69 fol 34r

Fig. 1: Woman using a broom to sweep four demons from her house. Latin MS 69, f. 34r (detail).

Erroneously recorded in the Rylands library catalogue as the Speculum Salutis, the manuscript is in fact a fragment of a late fifteenth-century copy of Ulrich von Lilienfeld’s Concordantiae caritatis (‘Concordance of Charity’, c. 1350s). The Concordiantae belongs to the typological picture book tradition that increased in popularity in the later Middle Ages. Building on the idea expressed in the Bible verse Matthew 5: 17 – “think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy but to fulfil” – such books juxtaposed images from the Old and New Testaments to express the concept of prefigurement. Scenes, figures or statements from the Old Testament (‘types’) were said to anticipate (or prefigure) the actions of Christ in the New Testament (the ‘antitype’).  Unusually, allegories from natural history were also included in the Concordiantae pictorial schema.

The image of the sweeping woman belongs to the typology of the Parable of the Unclean Spirit, which was often used in sermons on the first Wednesday after Invocavit Sunday (the first Sunday of Lent). In full, the parable reads:

When an impure spirit comes out of a person, it goes through arid places seeking rest and does not find it. Then it says, ‘I will return to the house I left.’ When it arrives, it finds the house unoccupied, swept clean and put in order. Then it goes and takes with it seven other spirits more wicked than itself, and they go in and live there. And the final condition of that person is worse than the first. That is how it will be with this wicked generation

The moral message of the tale is clear enough: sins committed after baptism (or penance) are much worse than before.  On a further level, warning is given to those who indulge in lechery, with the expulsion of the ‘impure spirit’ symbolising the expulsion of earthly desire. The placement of the Old Testament antitype of the destruction of Sodom in the middle register certainly highlights this point, as does the inclusion of a scene from the reign of Asa who, in old age, also began to embrace his carnal desires and neglect the authority of God. Similar allegories of the rejection of Divine Grace can be detected in the image of the kites eating flies, birds and mammals (i.e. an escalation of sinfulness), and the depiction of a group of stalks fighting to the death. Portraits of biblical figures, some with explanatory labels, frame the left and right-hand sides of the central diagram (fig. 2).

Latin MS 69 fol 34r full page

Fig. 2: Typology of the Parable of the Unclean Spirit, beginning with top register: sweeping woman; Christ explaining parable; Lot flees Sodom, with wife as a pillar of salt; King Asa; kites eating flies, birds and mammals; fighting stalks. Latin MS 69, fol. 34r.

Where the illustration of the sweeping woman is concerned, the artist of Latin MS 69 seems to have taken a more literal approach to the parable’s message. Broom in hand, the woman is pictured trying to remove four animal-like demons from the roof of her household. The lack of space may be the reason why the full number of spirits/sins was not included in the final design. Nonetheless, the image would have definitely provoked an emotional response in the manuscript’s intended audience. The mystical, protective qualities associated with the act of sweeping were a fundamental part of local medieval life. Shrove Tuesday was seen as a traditional time to sweep the house clean, a practical manifestation of the act of being ‘shriven’ (i.e. spiritually cleansed) the day before the start of Lent.

The act of sweeping could also have negative connotations, especially where its use by suspected witches was concerned. In a story from Rothenberg, Germany (c. 1652) – which, pointedly, was said to have taken place on Shrove Tuesday – a woman named Margaretha Horn was accused by her neighbour of causing his home to be infected by pests, having swept the waste from her own house onto a dung heap that was adjacent to his. By tapping her broom on the dung heap, she ‘activated’ the magical transference of vermin.

Crude as they may be, the illustrations in Latin MS 69 demonstrate that manuscripts need not be aesthetically pleasing to be socially useful. To preach to the rustics, churchmen needed moral stories that spoke to the immediate circumstances of their audience. What better way to articulate the Lent sermon of the Parable of the Unclean Spirit – specifically, the dangers of turning away from God and being infiltrated by demons – than an image of the ‘magical’ cleansing of the household? And yet, the belief that witches could use sweeping magic to torment their neighbours may have added an extra sense of fear, uncertainty, to the drawing’s moralistic message.


Thanks must go to Berthold Kress, for providing his research on the Concordantiae Caritatis, and to Elizabeth Gow, for originally directing the manuscript to the attention of the ‘Magic, Witches and Devils in the Early Modern World’ project team.

Find out more

Stephen Gordon is a Postdoctoral Research Associate on Jennifer Spinks’ Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded project ‘Magic, Diabolism, and Global Religion in European Print Culture, 1500–1700’ (grant number AH/L015013/1). One of the major outcomes of the project will be the exhibition ‘Magic, Witches and Devils in the Early Modern World’ at the John Rylands Library, from late January to June 2016. The exhibition will be co-curated by Jennifer Spinks and Sasha Handley, who both lecture in early modern history at the University of Manchester, and it has also been supported by The John Rylands Research Institute. It will feature the Concordantiae Caritatis alongside other works from the Rylands collection.

AHRC logo

Further links

Dr Stephen Gordon’s Webpage

Dr Jenny Spinks’s Webpage

Dr Sasha Handley’s Webpage


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